Monitoring Verification & Accounting (MVA) 


We can help with a wide variety of tools and techniques that are available for monitoring CO2 stored in deep subsurface geologic storage sites, as well as conducting surveillance to assure that unlikely but potential release from storage is not occurring. 

We can develop comprehensive lifecycle MVA plans to deliver monitoring at all levels:





We can help with range of tools thought life cycle of the storage project

Primary Tools

Proven mature tools or applications are capable of providing the information required to meet permitting requirements under the U.S. EPA UIC program for classes I, II, and V injection wells and applicable and deployable in all settings (atmospheric, near surface, or deep subsurface, depending on the tool type and function) regardless of project location.

Secondary Tools

Available tools/protocols that can aid in accounting for injected CO2 and can provide insight into the behavior of CO2 by refining results obtained from primary tools. Secondary tools are typically more advanced and are complimentary to primary tools. However, they are typically not required to satisfy existing UIC (classes I, II, and VI) monitoring requirements

Potential Tools

Tools and protocols that are technologically advanced and may help answer fundamental questions concerning the behavior of CO2 in the subsurface and may prove useful as monitoring tools after further development and/or field testing.

Sleipner 3D.jpg

Sleipner CCS – CO2 plume in map view based on time-lapse seismic (Courtesy Equinor)