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Hydrogen Primer
We can help you with entire value chain of Hydrogen storage business. 


IBusiness Case for Hydrogen Energy & Geological Storage

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In 2035, additional 1.6 billion people will require energy, as global population hits 8.7 Billion. The finite fossil fuel resources with considerable Greenhouse gas (GHG) impact and would require cleaner, sustainable and long-tern alternatives. Hydrogen energy is one such alternative. Wind and Solar are seasonal with geographical constraints along with demand variability. 

  • Hydrogen (H2) is an attractive energy storage option with a high specific energy capacity of 120 MJ/kg (Methane only 44 MJ/kg) and a clean combustion product.

  • As an energy carrier H2 has low density ~ 0.089 kg/m3 at standard condition

  • Therefore, H2 has much lower energy potential (120 x .089 = 10.68 MJ/m3) compared to Methane (45 x 0.657 = 29.56 MJ/m3). And has not been considered as fuel but rather as 'Energy Carrier.'

  • Its ease and ability to convert into electricity or heat supports its efficiency as an energy carrier due to its transport and energy storage capabilities .

  • In addition to its convertibility, it is capable of replacing almost 60% of the natural gas used for non-industrial activities due to its substantial energy potential

  • To effectively balance the consumer demand and supply during peak periods. Also the shear size volumes required for storage (much beyond surface storage), Underground Hydrogen Storage (UHS) or geological storage offers significant opportunity for hydrogen as future source of energy

Hydrogen Primer 

  • Supplying hydrogen to industrial users is now a major business around the world. 

  • Currently, it is mostly produced either via natural gas (steam methane reforming — SMR) using fossil fuel feedstock (blue and gray hydrogen -see color of hydrogen below))

  • Demand entirely supplied from fossil fuels, with 6% of global natural gas and 2% of global coal going to hydrogen production.

  • Production of hydrogen is responsible for CO2 emissions of around 830 mtpa of CO2 per year, equivalent to the CO2 emissions of the United Kingdom and Indonesia combined.

  • There are around 50 targets, mandates and policy incentives in place today that direct support hydrogen, with the majority focused on transport.

Understanding Colors of Hydrogen


Brown/Black Hydrogen:

Hydrogen produced from from coal using gasification. Its not environmentally clean as it has lots of CO2 foot-print.


Grey Hydrogen:

Hydrogen extracted from natural gas using Steam-Methane-Reforming (SMR) process. This is the most common form of H2 production in the world today. Its not environmentally clean as it has lots of CO2 foot-print.

Blue Hydrogen:

Hydrogen produced from fossil-fuels (Brown/Black or Grey hydrogen). Where CO2 is captured and repurposed (utilization) or stored underground (Geological Sequestration). 

Green Hydrogen:

Hydrogen produced by electrolysis of water using electricity from renewables sources like wind and/or solar.  Zero CO2 emissions are produced.

Pink/Purple Hydrogen:

Hydrogen produced by electrolysis of water using nuclear energy.  Zero CO2 emissions are produced.

Turquoise Hydrogen:

Hydrogen produced by thermal splitting of methane (methane pyrolysis). Instead of CO2, solid carbon is produced.

Yellow Hydrogen:

Hydrogen produced by electrolysis of water using grid electricity (renewable and fossil fuel).  

White Hydrogen:

Hydrogen produced as a by product of industrial processes. Occuring in its its rare natural fo

Uses Of Hydrogen



  • Oil refining, ammonia production, methanol production and steel production. 

  • Virtually all of this H2 is supplied using fossil fuels, significant potential for Clean H2


  • CARS: Competitiveness of hydrogen fuel-cell cars depends on fuel cell costs and refueling stations 

  • TRUCKS: the priority is to reduce the delivered price of hydrogen. 

  • SHIPPING & AVIATION: have limited LC fuel options available - Opportunity for hydrogen-based fuels.

  • BUILDINGS: hydrogen could be blended into existing natural gas networks, with the highest potential in multifamily and commercial buildings, particularly in dense cities while longer-term prospects could include the direct use of hydrogen in hydrogen boilers or fuel cells.


  • Hydrogen is one of the leading options for storing renewable energy, 

  • Hydrogen and Ammonia can be used in gas turbines to increase power system flexibility. 

  • Ammonia could also be used in coal-fired power plants to reduce emissions.

Challenges  Of Hydrogen Energy

  • Producing hydrogen from low-carbon energy is costly at the moment. IEA analysis finds that the cost of producing hydrogen from renewable electricity could fall 30% by 2030 

  • The development of hydrogen infrastructure is slow and holding back widespread adoption. 

  • Hydrogen prices for consumers are highly dependent on how many refueling stations there are, how often they are used and how much hydrogen is delivered per day. 

  • Hydrogen is almost entirely supplied from natural gas and coal today. 

  • Regulations currently limit the development of a clean hydrogen industry. 

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