Geological Sequestration - For Sustainable Tomorrow
Nature-Based CO2 storage solution are part of the bigger jigsaw solution space. Both, NBS and geological storage have their benefits, advantages and challenges. The choice of each approach depends on several factors and regional consideration; power key factors like Scalability, Sustainability and land & water usage favors geological sequestration, that offers deep decarbonization, especially for hard to able industries (ex: cement, Iron and steel, refining etc.)
Approach: BECCS relies on bioenergy crops to absorb CO2 through photosynthesis, which is then captured and stored underground. Nature-based storage refers to natural ecosystems such as forests, wetlands, and grasslands that naturally absorb and store carbon. Geological storage involves capturing CO2 emissions from industrial processes and storing them in underground geological formations.
CO2 Removal Potential: BECCS has the potential to achieve negative emissions by actively removing CO2 from the atmosphere. Nature-based storage, particularly well-managed forests and ecosystems, can also absorb and store significant amounts of carbon. Geological storage primarily focuses on capturing and storing CO2 emissions rather than actively removing carbon from the atmosphere.
Scalability: BECCS and geological storage have the advantage of scalability, as they can be implemented on a large scale. With BECCS, additional land and biomass resources are required to expand the bioenergy crop production. Geological storage requires suitable geological formations for CO2 storage, but once established, it can handle significant amounts of CO2 emissions.
Technological Complexity: BECCS involves complex technologies, including biomass production, energy conversion, and carbon capture and storage, which require significant infrastructure and expertise. Nature-based storage relies on the natural processes of ecosystems, making it less technologically intensive. Geological storage also requires advanced carbon capture technologies but is more focused on the storage aspect.
Co-benefits: BECCS has the potential to produce renewable energy while removing CO2, which can contribute to sustainable energy systems. Nature-based storage provides additional benefits such as biodiversity conservation, water resource management, and ecosystem services. Geological storage primarily addresses CO2 emissions reduction.
Land and Water Requirements: BECCS may require significant land areas for bioenergy crop cultivation, potentially impacting food production and biodiversity. Nature-based storage can work within existing ecosystems, but careful land management and conservation practices are necessary. Geological storage does not require additional land but requires suitable geological formations for CO2 storage.